by Emile Reynaud - 1894.
Reynaud created animations by developing the praxinoscope toy he had already marketed. The background was projected separately and the moving figures were painted on individual cells, then mounted into a paper and leather band and projected using a large praxinoscope (which operated using mirrors). The band was manipulated by hand. The operator could move back wares and forwards to repeat actions or speed or slow up a scene. The music was live.